Qingdao, well-known to the West by its Postal map spelling Tsingtao, is a sub-provincial city in eastern Shandong province, People's Republic of China. Lying across the Shandong Peninsula while looking out to the Yellow Sea, Qingdao today is a major seaport, naval base, and industrial center. It is also the site of the Tsingtao Brewery. The name "Qingdao" in Chinese means "Green Island".
- Geography and Climate
Location within China, Qingdao is located at the southern tip of the Shandong Peninsula. It borders three prefecture-level cities, namely Yantai to the northeast, Weifang to the west, and Rizhao to the southwest. The city's total jurisdiction area occupies 10,654km². The geography of the city is relatively flat while mountains spur up nearby. The highest elevation in the area is 1133m above sea level. The city has a 730.64-kilometer coastline. Five significant rivers that flow for more than 50km can be found in the region.
Qingdao enjoys mild summers and relatively warm winters, with the average July temperature at 23.8°C and the average January temperature at -0.7°C. The city gets most rain in June and July, at an average of 150mm.
The city of Qingdao has 1,447 primary schools, 365 middle schools, 85 secondary vocational schools and 11 colleges and universities, with a total enrolment of 68,000. Qingdao Ocean University is the only one of its type in China. Departments, including, 83 for masters, 12 for doctors and 2 for post doctor degree awards, and are approved by the central authority of education. There are more than 100 certified doctor instructors and 300 certified master instructors. Qingdao International School, located in the State Tourist Resort, operates training programs for international students, whose parents are working in Qingdao. There are also 11 schools funded by domestic and overseas investment. Every year, many education professionals are employed by the schools or make academic visits. About 300 international students are studying in Qingdao.
Before troops were garrisoned here by the imperial court of Qing in 1891, Qingdao had been a small fishing village. It became a German concession in 1897 and was occupied by invading Japanese soldiers when the First World War broke out in 1914. The famous May 4th Movement was launched in 1919 and protesters, against the then Chinese government yielding to Japanese pressure, demanded the recommencement of sovereignty over Qingdao. The city reverted to Chinese rule in 1922, but was occupied by Japan again during the Second World War. After World War II Qingdao served as the headquarters of the Western Pacific Fleet of the US Navy. The USS Alaska, allowed by the KMT, occupied Tsingtao, China in October 1945. On June 2nd, 1949, the CCP's Red Army entered Qingdao City; Shandong and Qingdao's municipalities have been under PRC control from then on. Since the 1984 inauguration of China's open-door policy to foreign trade and investment, Qingdao has developed quickly as a modern port city. It is now the headquarters of the Chinese navy's northern fleet.
By the end of 2002, Qingdao is estimated to be the home for more than 7 million inhabitants, of which around 2.6 million reside in the Qingdao urban area. Another estimated 2.3 million reside in other cities under Qingdao's jurisdiction. The annual number of births is calculated around 82,000, with a birth rate of 11.26/1000 population, and a death rate of 6.93/1000 population, both calculated on an annual basis. This results to a 4.33/1000 population growth rate overall, not counting immigration, which is substantial. Living standards are among highest of the leading Chinese cities due to the strong export economy and relatively high family wages.
While Qingdao is home to 38 Chinese ethnic minorities they constitute only 0.14% of the city's total population. Qingdao boasts a vibrant expatriate community, led by the Korean community which comprised over 60,000 individuals in 2005.
Through the unique combination of German and Chinese architecture in the city center, combined with modern high-rises and freeways, along a coastline of beaches, rocky headlands, and picturesque cypress trees, give Qingdao a distinct atmosphere not found anywhere else in the world. Qingdao is proud to be the host city for several events of the 2008 Olympics, including the sailing competitions which will take place along the complicated shoreline directly offshore from the city. The distinctive cuisine is Lu Cai, the Shandong regional style. The area's most famous festival is the Qingdao International Beer Festival, held annually since 1991.
Qingdao is perhaps most famously known for the Tsingtao Brewery, which German settlers founded in 1903, and which produces Tsingtao beer, now the most famous beer in China and known worldwide.
Qingdao May 4th Square In 1984 the Chinese government named a district of Qingdao a Special Economic and Technology Development Zone (SETDZ). Along with this district, the entire city had gone through amazing development of secondary and tertiary industries. As an important trading port in the province, Qingdao flourishes with foreign investment and international trade. South Korea and Japan in particular made extensive investment in the city. At least 30,000 South Korean nationals reside there. Construction proceeds at a relatively fast pace in Qingdao. Famous corporations include Haier, HiSense, Aucma, Tsingtao Beer, Double-star, Qingdao Rubber and Estong.